In June the Englishmen had gotten accustomed already by roaring aircraft engines from their sleep to be torn. Also the play of a diving or exploding or coming up in flames airplane was not an unusual event in East Anglia of the yearly 1944. When however in the sunny afternoon of 4 August a Boeing B-17 fell into a forest, the explosion exceeded nevertheless enormously the used framework. Even if the detonation were moderated by numerous oaks something, then nevertheless three road workers still lost their hearing at considerable distance.
At the crash place arrivals a crater of approximately 30 meters of diameters and trunks of attained full growth oaks was offered lay around periphery by 60 meters scattered. Of the B-17 were only metal fragments present, the largest of it the cylinders of the engines.
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The heat developed with the explosion had melted a large part of the metal. Not amazingly, because with this machine it probably concerned not a normal B-17 with a bomb charge of 4.000 lbs (1,814 kg), but around the deadliest missile, which had ever come down over Great Britain. This and three further equal equipped bombers formed the opening salvo in the context of an experiment with remote-controlled weapons – designated after the Greek goddess of the love: “Project Aphrodite”.
On 13 June the Germans of launch pads in Pas de Calais began their offensive out with the “flying bomb” Fieseler Fi 103 (V-1) against London. With the V-1 did not act it actually around particularly an unmanned, again usable airplane designed for carrying a warhead with Pulsostrahlahntrieb. This forerunner of the today’s cruise missiles was a result of the 1928 of the aerodynamicist Paul Schmidt research work begun at jet propulsion.
The project ran under the pseudonym FZG 76; the missile received the designation Fi 103 and the weapon became from Goebbels’ propaganda machinery V-1 (that’s means retaliation weapon 1) baptized. With the poeple of London it was designated after their first hit on 13 June 1944 because of their unmistakable sound as “Doodlebug”.
Also when the V-1 was not the first “guided weapon”, then its mass employment aroused nevertheless an intensified interest in the allied camp in weapon carriers in the unique use. Loaded and radio-remote controlled conventional military aircraft it had given considerations for the use of unmanned, with explosive of course in different staffs. In view of the threat by V-weapons now this possibility on suggestion of the USSTAF (US Strategic Air Force) was taken up by major General Carl A. Spaatz.
Major General Spaatz, combat flier veteran from the First World War, returned in January 1944 again to England and transferred the instruction over the USSTAF, to those the 8th Air Force to Bushy park, Middlesex, renamed was and that now 8. and 15. US Air Force been subordinate.
From outdated or flown off heavy bombers necessary employment equipment should not be removed and be inserted in their place radio receiver and connected with the autopilot. Finally the machines should be loaded with approx. ten tons explosive. The airplane manned with pilot and radio operator should be normally started by the crew and brought on height. As soon as then of a “mother airplane” (leading airplane) from the radio telecontrol was taken over, the crew should leave the aircraft with the parachute, which was then directed by radio into the intended target.
Rapid stepping out of the 2 men crew of the machine proved however as problematic, on the one hand because of the very small hatch lain directly before the engines on the left fuselage side and on the other hand because of the extremely strong current. Therefore at least with some machines the hatch was increased and attached before the hatch a draft deflector.
AZON – beginning only one makeshift
On 20 June 1944 Spaatz informed general Henry H. “Hap” Arnold over the beginning of the project and required to accomplish appropriate tests also in the USA. Thereupon at the test site of the US Air Force in Florida a program under the designation “Weary Willie” was brought into being. It seems to have been only halfheartedly pursued however, since it had hardly effects on the work in England.
The project Aphrodite ordered 23 June 1944 by the USSTAF under the condition that the 8. US Air Force development and testing accomplishes. Directly operational the engineering section concerned with it designated at that time for the testing of the guidable AZON bomb (AZON = azimuth only) radio price increase used as the best suitable. Practically it represented however only one makeshift up to the arrival of special devices from the USA.
Major Henry Rand, the technical expert for the AZON system, received instruction, to leave the AZON equipment in Horsham St. Faith and go after Burton Wood, while three crews trained at the AZON system went to Bovingdon, where the first remote-controlled bomber should be tested.
Old airplane with new behavior in descending flight
In the meantime had the 8. US Air Force the 3rd Bomb division with the allocation of the Aphrodite unit assigns. Voluntary pilots and radio operators, who had been recruited from the groups of bombers of the division for a “secret and dangerous” mission, were sent to the Honington Air Depot, where the 1st Strategic Air Depot was busy with it to develop from 10 war-tired B-17F/G bombers – with altogether 65 planned – the unnecessary equipment.
The entire armoring, machineguns, which bomb release as well as oxygene equipment, copilot-seat as well as everything that for the unique flight was not necessary remoted. Thus the weight of the Flying Fortresses could be reduced to approximately 32,000 lbs (14,500 kg).
This weight reduction around 5.000 lbs (2,268 kg) affected however the flight behavior, so that data over the changed descending flight behavior of the B-17 had to be collected. This taken place to a large extent with help for the B-17F instance equal heavy transportation version of Major General Earle E. Partridges.
With a machine, the B-17F, 42-30595, was separated the entire structure of cab, in order to facilitate a loading with torpedoes. After newest realizations thereby the German battle ship “Tirpitz” should be attacked. After however the daring enterprise had been however dropped, the machine with its open cockpit was used only for training purposes, no longer however than Baby.
To development of the unnecessary equipment in Honington the B-17 was flown to Burton Wood, where her two AZON receivers coupled with the autopilot (one for the side and one for the altitude control), an antenna, which necessary wiring and a radio altimeter received for automatic altitude hold. In addition the bomb pit was locked and strengthened by cross beams, in order to be able to accommodate seven tons of the planned charge of ten tons explosive in it; the remaining three tons went into the front fuselage area. At first three AZON-B-24 of the 458th Bomb Group were used as guidance airplanes. In addition, a B-17G kept built into a AZON transmitter in Burton Wood.
With test flights in the cockpit an Ascension Day Command
After their re-equipment the machines were transferred after Bovington, where on 1 July 1944 under strictest secrecy the re-education began. The crews received 25 flying hours training as well as an intensive training in a goal and navigation. The AZON steering element seemed to work contently placing, whereby the flight stability of the remote-controlled bomber seemed to form the only larger problem. With all temptation flights, also with such with radio telecontrol, a pilot always was in the cockpit of the bomber remote-controlled as a Baby designated for safety reasons.
The building of the large V-weapon positions in Pas de Calais gave cause to increasing concern and the demands after fastest possible beginning of the employments became ever louder. The RAF was correct the use the extra is enough for runway in Woodbridge than starting point too. Thereupon the commander of the Aphrodite unit shifted, Lt.Col. James Turner, with 10 B-17 “Babies”, a B-17 and three Consolidated B-24 Liberator leading-airplane for the remote steering element and observation as well as eight P-47 Thunderbolt on 7 July, turned off of a Fighter Group as escort, to Woodbridge.
Nine of the remote-controlled bombers received a charge from 20.000 lbs (9,072 kg) to TNT, which tenth the same quantity of gasoline gel (napalm). The loaded machines were distributed turned off between the trees, which caused uneasiness with the personnel of the place, since this damages returning machines further as emergency landing field for out employments served. Many of these “invalids” went with the landing out of control and the conception one of it could one loaded Aphrodite airplanes ram, were frightening.
Because of the limited radio frequencies only two “Babies” could be started at the same time. Planned two groups of employments were, in each case consisting of two guidance airplanes and a remote-controlled bomber. The “Babies” should start conventionally and fly an intended distance, while that could be examined the remote control and the crew had opportunity to to jump off with the parachute.
After the leading airplanes had steered their two “Babies” in the target, they should fly back to their output place, take over there two further in the meantime started “Babies” and in the same way into the indicated target to steer. The bomber loaded with the gasoline gel should be held in readiness, in order to be able to switch a met goal off completely.
Airfield change for secrecy reasons
Basic requirement for each Aphrodite employment formed however clear weather. But in the days after the arrival favorable weather prevailed to the Aphrodite unit in the intended target areas at no time.
In the meantime the Aphrodite unit for reasons of the secrecy had been decided on a more remote place to shift after Fersfield. Fersfield was for bombers of the 8. US Air Fleet built place, which had been used however up to then still by no employment unit. The decision fell on 12 July and already three days later began the shifting of the Aphrodite unit from Woodbridge to Fersfield.
Fersfield was led as branch office the close convenient 388th Bomb Group. The ground personnel of the 560th Bomb Squadron, 388th Bomb Group, shifted as service unit in August from Knettishall to Fersfield and their squadron commander, Lt.Col. Roy Forrest, became a commander of the place. The B-17 of the 560th BS in Knettishall took part however with support of the ground personnel of the three other relays of the 388th BG further in regular missions.
Under the units shifted after Fersfield likewise interested in the co-operation in the Aphrodite project was also the Special Air Unit No. 1 (SAU-1) of the U. S. Navy with Voluntary of the antisubmarine chase squadron from Dunkeswell in southwest England. The US Navy had considered already a similar project for the Pacific area, should with radio-controlled drones from carriers for one-way employments have been used and wanted in this first US enterprise in things robot war guidance have been involved. Their work in Fersfield ran under the pseudonym “Anvil”.
In order to complicate the thing further, also still one was briefly before shifted from Wright Field, the USA, in Great Britain special-purpose force arrived, which wanted to accomplish “Batty” of temptation employments with TV guided bombs under the code name, to Fersfield.
A most important goal: The V-1 launching pads
With remote control and a TV steering system equipped and with 25.000 lbs (11,340 kg) Torpex explosive the loaded PB4Y-1 Liberator of the SAU-1 was led by a PV-1 Ventura leading-airplane. The PB4Y-1 with a crew of two started men, which brought the machine on 2.000 to feet (600 m) and course on V-1 positions in France, before it bailed out with the parachute.
Despite several alarming in the preceeding weeks the first Aphrodite employment took place in the early afternoon of 4 August, as two “Babies” with in each case 64,000 lbs (29,000 kg) weight in the distance of 5 minutes in Fersfield started and large concreted V-1 launching pads close of the French channel coast to the target had.
The two AZON leading-airplane had ascended already 45 minutes before, in order to be able to achieve a fixed inspection point in 20.000 feet (6,000 m) height. The two “Babies” were advanced with the help of a B-17-controll-airplane to the inspection points, where the guidance airplanes the radio price increase took over. Then the “babies” flew a 50-miles rectangle-course to 2.000 feet height, while its could be examined the remote control.
For each Baby a B-24 leading-airplane as well as a B-17 were present as reserve leading-airplane for the case that on the way radio communication should fail. The “Babies” had white painted the top side of the surfaces and the fin to the better recognizability. A Mosquito Weather observation aircraft flew in front and a further B-17 served than relay station for weather information.
Tailspin into death
The crew of the first “Babies” left its machine between Woodbridge and the point of coastal overflight in Orfordness. The flight second “Babies” ended with a disaster:
After switching to radio telecontrol the machine changed into an easy climb. The pilot returned it into the horizontal flight, but after renewed switching the error arose again. With the third attempt the climb to an flow separation and the Fortress led turned out into wobbling. The radio operator could save itself still with the parachute, the pilot 1st Lt. John Fischer, died however, when he left the machine only directly before the impact and the explosion. The water-filled krater is today still present.
The first Baby (B-17F 42-30342) was steered successfully over the English Channel, then however stepped a disturbance in the altitude control on and with the further tax maneuvers fell the machine northwest Gravelines at some distance of its goal, the V-1 position in cotton wool. Reason was probably a Flak hit. With the explosion the B-17 was divided into smallest fragments, those over a surface of approx 5 km were scattered.
When the leading-airplane returned to its homeland airfield, two further “Babies” started, this time against V-1 positions in Wizernes and Mimoyecques. The course over the county Suffolk and the point of coastal overflight were the same as before. Both crews could bailed out with the parachute; two of the men were however easily hurt thereby. The Baby with the target Wizernes turned out with the target approach in the low clouds except view and impacted only behind its target – which radio operator in the mother airplane had the effect of the elevator wrongly computed.
After Flak crews had announced the firing of the B-17 intended for the attack on cotton wool and their unusual behavior, the crash place was examined. But despite the absence of corpses and MGs as well as the enormous extents of the craters the incident was not recognized as employment of a special weapon.
Again and again problems with the radio price increase
The next Aphrodite employment took place in the morning 6 of August with the start from two further “Babies”. The procedures were the same as with the first two employments with a main and a reserve guidance airplane in 15.000 feet (4,572 m) height for each Baby and a test course over Suffolk before leaving the coast with Orfordness.
The crew of the first “Babies” had left its machine with the parachute. During approximating to the opposing coast the guidance airplane lost however the funkkontakt and the Fortress loaded with explosive fell into the sea. Problems with the radio price increase arose also with the Baby following in the distance of 10 minutes. To jumping off and flying over the channel coast the machine went to the crew into uncontrollable link curves and fell likewise into the sea.
Discontent with the limited possibilities of the double AZON receivers, that had been meant for temporally limited attempts also only, led to the fact that these were replaced by equipment substantially more developed, which had arrived in the meantime from the USA and a more precise control with higher sensitivity promised. During the installation work and examinations one month long no more further Aphrodite employments took place. The Aphrodite airplanes equipped with the new devices received the new pseudonym “Castor”, nevertheless the designation “Aphrodite” as generic term for the guided missile program of the USSTAF in Fersfield were maintained.
Lieutenant Kennedy in combat with his Liberator
The crew of the first Baby leaved their aircraft between Woodridge and the coast near Orfordness. The flight of the second Baby ended in a desaster:
The US Navy started its first remote-controlled airplane under the anvil program in the afternoon of 12 August with the target of destroying the V-weapon position in Mimoyecques. The US Navy always considered on their self-sufficiency had bring along two own leading-airplanes of the type PV-1 Ventura and had equipped also. As a “aby” from as per Joe P. Kennedy (see picture left), the son of the US Ambassador in Great Britain and brother of the later president, John F. Kennedy, flown PB4Y-1 Liberator (No. 32271) functioned. The place of the radio operator took as per W.J. “Bud” willy.
The start took place at 17.52 o’clock. The 150 miles (240 km) for a long time stretch led for southeast over the English Channel. The PB4Y-1 could reach fully loaded well 150 knots, so that the estimated arrival time over the goal of 19.00 was to be kept o’clock easily. Minutes to the start, flying eight-toes to 2.000 feet (600 m), as per Kennedy the machine had trimmed height, had warmed up and had coupled the autopilot. to “it announced the ready for commissioning shank Spade Flush” on as per Anderson one, the pilot of the leading-airplane flying behind him. From up now Anderson steered with the “Peter pilot” (small control stick) in such a way specified Kennedys machine on the console before him carefully. It relied by radar echoes as well as on view observations of the copilot of the reserve guidance airplane, since its TV screen showed only Schneegestoeber. Together with Kennedy it began to examine the individual controls: Elevator, crosswise and rudder, exactly so, as it had made it also a half hour before with still Baby standing at the soil.
Five minutes later the machine with the call signal T-11 on the distance section running landinward should themselves have found, however during the examinations of the control 12 miles (20 km) far off the course toward lake had gotten. It was into a mile south the river Blythe and fed themselves the place Beccle. Col. Elliot Roosevelt, son of the US president in its Mosquito Reconnaissance plane, had fed itself the machine up to some hundreds foot, in order to be able to take a few photographs. Vapor trails of the accompanying Mustangs covered the easily covered sky over them.
Commander Smith in the nose of the B-17 Lt.Col. Forrests, which should have accepted the two crew members jumped off with the parachute in a half hour far in the south in the proximity of Dover to land and, saw Kennedys machine forwards and far under itself. Forrest changed into an easy descending flight and tried to catch up. Both Kennedy and Willy were to be recognized in their Baby: Kennedy in the cockpit and Willy behind its plexiglass dome in the nose. The television picture in Andersons one leading-airplane of the area below Kennedys machine was still bad, but the Baby supplied a good picture at Lt. Demlein in the reserve leading-airplane. Since it was Lt. Demlein, which would steer the Baby 40 minutes long on its final approach in the target, everything seemed in best order.
Blew up in the air
Accompanied of P-51 Mustang fighters, plus navigation and other support airplanes from Fersfield, the attack federation of the US Navy on its way to the point of coastal overflight was Southwold.
Anderson steered Kennedys machine into a light left curve. In this moment, over exactly 18,20 hours GMT, suddenly the Baby exploded with two enormous detonations in the distance of one second in 2.000 feet (600 m) height over Newdelight Wood. Into the far periphery in the proximity of the locality Blythburgh no reference to a possible cause for the explosion was to be found to scattered rubble of the machine. The detonation of 24.000 lbs (11,000 kg) explosive had divided the entire airplane with exception of the engine mounts into smallest fragments. Later investigations came to the result that the most probable cause was an error in electrical system, which had been switched on before the crew bailed out.
In August 1944 three baby-missions did not take place also from TV camera equipped, radio-remote controlled GB-4-Bombs also these attempts were main a straight piercing success due to disturbances via radios and reflections at the water surface.
On 2000 lb-bomb (900 kg) based GB-4 possessed small wings, mobile tail fins, a radio remote steering device and one in the head installed TV camera. In each case two of the bombs were cultivated at external bomb racks below the wings of a B-17-leading-airplane. All missions took place with the B-17G, 42-40043 and a crew of the 388th BG.
After three attempts with the GB-4 on English training areas the first genuine employment took place on 13 August, a goal was the port of Le Havre. A B-17 as observation airplane accompanied the Batty machine. To each crew belonged two and/or five experts from Wright Field, which had been involved in the development of the GB-4. Colonel Forrest observed the employment from its “Droop Snoot” P-38. A Mosquito Reconnaissance plane turned out too close to one of the concreted bombs and fell, from fragments met. Unfortunately the perfectly not working TV receiver built in the leading airplane supplied to weak pictures, in order to be able to steer thereby the bombs precisely. Thus a for instance the mile hit forwards, the other one a mile right from the port of Le Havre.
Camera catch did not make simply
The second, one week later against Uboot bunker with La Pallice led Batty employment was still less successful. When releasing the first bomb the camera catch closed and prevented a further picture transmission. The second GB-4 came into uncontrollable wobbling movements. The third and last attempt with the GB-4 took place on 26 August and was directed against mechanisms in Ijmuiden. With a cloud cover of 8/10 however the target area no more was not to be recognized and the employment had to be broken off. After this third unsuccessful employment the command decided to reset the project for advancement.
Retrospectively one must say that the technology was developed at this time not yet enough, in order to ensure the necessary precise control and reliability.
At the other end of the world Japan used its version of the V-1 against the employment federations of the US Navy operating in the Pacific. The Yokosuka MXY-8 Ohka (the code name of the allied ones was Baka, for fool) became Japanese under the surface of the Mitsubishi G4M-2 Betty of the 721. Kokutai carried. The first employment to 21 March 1945 addressed itself against US Task Force FV58.
Attack target Helgoland
The second and last Anvil service of the US Navy took place on 3 September 1944. After that the allied ones the large V-weapon positions had already conquered, as a target the Uboot basis on Helgoland were selected. This time the employment succeeded, but the man at the radio telecontrol had confounded and let the island with the neighbouring island dune the “Liberator” impact there. The force of the explosion destroyed still nearly a kilometer of the impact place removes houses. Of the US Navy used FM system worked with one in the head of the bomb accommodated TV camera, which supplied pictures to the leading-airplane.
The Castor missions began in September with the FM system of the US Navy similar a remote control with a TV camera in the nose of the airplane. As a goal Helgoland and Heide/Hemmingstedt were selected, since this only a short penetration into opposing territory required and so that the danger of a firing was smaller by the flak.
In place of double AZON equipment a standard transmitting of you receiver AN/ARW-1 in the Castor airplane and the associated transmitter AN/ARW-18 was built in the leading-airplane. The machines started still with two men crew, however now a copilot replaced to the radio operators. Eureka/Rebecca Naviagtionssysteme served for the localization of the airplane if this with poor visibility from the field of vision of the observer shoultd disappear.
Additional assistance for maintaining the visual contact were from the mother airplane by radio switch offable smoke generator in the Castor airplane and the remarkable yellow coat of paint on the top side of the machine.
Anti-aircraft fire shortly before the target
The first Castor start took place on 11 September, as a machine loaded with 21.855 lbs (9,913 kg) Torpex against Helgoland was used. The procedure corresponded to that of the Aphrodite missions using the Doppe AZON devices, with which exception that the leading-airplane on same height as the Baby flew to 2.000 to 2,500 feet (600 to 760 m) height, however with a distance of two to three kilometers behind it and when approximating to the target this distance to ten to twelve kilometers increased.
The remote control during the flight over 400 kilometers was called perfect, until the Baby received only 10 seconds before the target a flak hit, fell into sea and exploded about 200 meters far away from the beach.
Even if the Castor system exhibited substantial improvements in relation to the systems used in former times, then its employment was nevertheless pursued of the misfortune. When the pilot, 1Lt. Richard Lindahl, left its machine with the parachute, the static line of its parachute had been obviously not correctly fastened and it suffered a neck break. Three days later two Castor machines against an oil refinery into Hemmingstedt, missed however due to bad weather its target was inserted.
Instead of Helgoland farm in Sweden hit!
On 15 and 30 October was Helgoland again a target of two double attacks, in addition, this time the “Babies” missed their target. A machine broke others open off the locality Helgoland, two fell into the sea. With fourth fallow the radio contact off, it flew in northeast direction and exploded on a farm in the proximity of Trollhaettan in Sweden. Obviously regarded patient Sweden this incident as a further attempt of a damaged bomber to find rescue in their country. This is to be concluded from it that announced, the crew bailed out over Denmark.
On 27 October the instruction was issued, the still existing Castor airplanes for attacks on industrial complexes in German large cities so far landinward as to be used possible from the USSTAF. For this it was necessary to build an additional engine performance regulation in order into 10.000 feet (3,000 m) height into the opposing territory penetrates and in target proximity the flight altitude to 250 feet (75 m) to reduce to be able. A still larger test flight height would have been desirably, was however because of the oil pressure-regulated loader price increase, which exhibited an inclination to freezing and thus for failing, not possible.
In November, after extracting the projects Batty and Anvil, the 3rd division, to the homeland place of the organizational unit, decided to shift the Aphrodite unit Knettishall, back. This was to end of the monthly locked and already on 5 December took place from Knettishall the start of the first two machines with a target marshalling yard Herford.
During the flight however the weather and the close clouds worsened prevented an identifying of the station. Gaps in the clouds in the proximity of the Dummersee made a descending flight possible, in order to be able to constitute perhaps suitable targets of opportunity. The first Baby was steered on Haldorf and exploded south the city. With second probably engine performance dropped and it fell on a field, without exploding.
The crew of the accompanying Mosquito reconnaissance aircraft seemed to have remained intact the machine. Thereupon flying hunter the instruction was issued to destroy the Baby with machineguns to the escort which failed however.
While the command assumed, which was opponent an intact Baby into the hands pleases, then this seems however not the case to have been. A message lets assume that the Castor bomber briefly after the crash landing exploded and some German soldiers died, which had begun with the examining of the bomber.
German documents over the Aphrodite employments show the fact that at that time none of these attacks had been recognized as such and gives reason to the acceptance that the bomber, if he had exploded after the landing, when normal B-17 with bomb charge had been regarded.
As the fate plays in such a way: It does not admit was against the fact to the USSTAF that another Aphrodite bomber, even if damages was fallen into German hands. At the New Year’s Day the last two still available Castor-B-17 against a power station into Oldenburg had been inserted first of the approaching “Babies” received a flak hit and fell into a field at the edge of the city, without exploding thereby which had however escaped the escort aircraft.
Experts of the German Air Force were able to examine the Castor bomber rather exactly and to save a large part of the radio and remote guidance equipment. The second Baby, probably likewise of the flak hit, fell some miles southwest Oldenburg and exploded. This the last employments of the Castor airplanes should have been, mainly, because they had become sudden a political issue.
In November the USSTAF had suggested shifting the starting point for the Aphrodite employments on the European mainland of where from the B-17 could have been used against industrielle a tareget. When this suggestion was submitted to the British supreme command, this expressed its concern over the fact that the employment of this weapon could provoke against densely populated areas retaliatory strikes against London, which had to suffer at that time under the V-2-attacks. Reluctant agreed the British the plan despite large concern of some places on 15 January.
This concern continued to stop and led finally to the fact that the agreement eleven was recalled days later. The British fears were to be due partly also to a reorientation over the value of bombarding densely populated areas for breaking the moral of the population.
The USSTAF to repeat still anxious, to continue with its attempts became before digit in Washington and brought president Franklin D. Roosevelt to begin in a telex on 29 March 1945 the demand after British agreement the plan, Castor airplanes against the Ruhr district. The answer telex of Churchill contained the full agreement, was however in the Churchill’s own style so drawn up that the doubts Roosevelt expressed therein would deter.
The death of the president and the collapse of Germany terminated however the further pursuit of the plan. No more Castor airplanes were prepared for the start in Knettishall and the involved ones expected the attitude of the project. The Aphrodite leading-airplanes and crews came several weeks long into oblivion. Only on 27 April the project became, with that the largest single quantities of conventional explosive against hostile goals in 2. World War used was finally adjusted.
Aphrodite-Missions, Aircraft and Crews
|04. Aug. 44||Watten||B-17F 42-30342 (ex- 95th BG “Taint A Bird)||1Lt F. H. Pool, S/Sgt P. Enterline|
|04. Aug. 44||Siracourt||B-17G 42-39835 (ex-351st BG “Wantta Spa”)||1Lt W. Fisher (KAS), T/SGT E. Most|
|04. Aug. 44||Wizernes||B-17F 42-3461 (ex-92nd BG)||1Lt F. L. Houston, T/Sgt W. D. Smith|
|04. Aug. 44||Mimoyecques||B-17F 41-24639 (ex-91st BG “The Careful Virgin”)||1Lt C. A. Angel, T/Sgt C. A. Parsons|
|06. Aug. 44||Watten||B-17F 42-30212 (ex-388th BG “Quarterback”)||1Lt J. P. Andrecheck, T/Sgt R. Healy|
|06. Aug. 44||Watten||B-17G 42-31394 (ex-379th BG)||1Lt. J. Sollars, T/Sgt H. Graves|
|12. Aug. 44||Mimoyecques||PB4Y-1 32271 (Rufzeichen T-11)||Lt. J. Kennedy (USN) (KAS), Lt. W. J. Willy (USN) (KAS)|
|03. Sep. 44||Helgoland||B-24D 42-63954||Lt R. Spalding (USN)|
|11. Sep. 44||Helgoland||B-17F 42-30180 (ex-96th BG “Guzzlers”)||1Lt R. W. Lindahl (KAS), 1Lt D. E. Salles|
|14. Sep. 44||Hemmingstedt||B-17F 42-30363 (ex-96th BG “Ruth L III”)||1Lt M. P. Hardy, 1Lt E Hadley|
|14. Sep. 44||Hemmingstedt||B-17G 42-39827 (ex-306th BG)||1Lt W. G. Haller, /2Lt. C. L. Shinault|
|15. Oct. 44||Helgoland||B-17F 42-30039 (ex-384th BG “Liberty Belle”)||1Lt R. Betts, 2Lt M. Garvin|
|15. Oct. 44||Helgoland||B-17G 42-37743 (ex-94th BG)||1Lt W. Patton, 1Lt J. W. Hinner|
|30. Oct. 44||Helgoland||B-17F 42-30066 (ex-100th BG “Mugwump”)||1Lt G. A. Barnes, 1Lt R. McCauley|
|30. Oct. 44||Helgoland||B-17F 42-3438 (ex-96th BG)||1Lt W. C. Gaither, 1Lt W. M. Dunnuck|
|05. Dec. 44||Herford||B-17G 42-39824||1Lt T. H. Barton, 1Lt F. E. Bruno|
|05. Dec. 44||Herford||B-17F 42-30353 (ex-95th BG “Ten Knights In The Bar Room”)||1Lt R. F. Butler, 1Lt K. T. Waters|
|01. Jan. 45||Oldenburg||B-17F 42-30178 (ex-95th BG “Darlin’ Dolly”)||2Lt J. Stein, 1Lt E. Morris|
|01. Jan. 45||Oldenburg||B-17F 42-30237 (ex-397th BG “Stump Jumper”)||Capt J. Hodson, 1Lt L. Lawing|